Hemingway, JFK, and the Essence of Courage

On this date in 1938, Ernest Hemingway returned to Barcelona for the third time during the bloody civil war between Gen. Francisco Franco’s right-wing rebels and Spain’s leftist government. Like most American intellectuals, Hemingway was sympathetic to the loyalists’ side.
The famous American author perceived, correctly, that Franco’s movement was a precursor to fascist movements in Italy and Germany. Several hundred like-minded American communists and fellow travelers from Europe had volunteered to fight Franco’s forces, and most of these volunteers fought in a racially integrated…